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第16号(2022-03-15) >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11173/3456

Title: 仏教における女性研究の変遷 : 仏典の研究から実態の研究へ
Other Titles: Changes in the study of women in Buddhism : Focus shifted from gender discrimination in sutra to gender discriminations in practice
Authors: 荒井, 美月
ARAI, Mitsuki
Keywords: 仏教とジェンダー
Buddhism and gender
traditional Buddhism
women monks
history of nuns
Issue Date: 15-Mar-2022
Publisher: 京都女子大学
Abstract: 伝来後独自の発展を遂げた仏教は日本の文化や人々の生活に深く根付いている。仏教は教学や歴史だけでなく寺院や僧侶の社会的機能など多岐にわたって研究されており、なかでもジェンダーの視点からの仏教研究は新しい。本稿では第二派フェミニズムが起こった1970年代以降の仏教と女性に関する研究の変遷を明らかにし、そのうえで研究史には表れてこない仏教における女性の歴史を先行研究と資料からみた。仏教と女性に関する先行研究は1970年代から2000年代にかけて活発化し、「五障説」や「八敬法」など仏典のジェンダー差別に焦点を当てたものから、女性僧侶や僧侶の妻など実践の場におけるジェンダー差別に焦点を当てたものへと変遷していった。また実践の場におけるジェンダー差別の研究ではインタビュー調査が有効であることが示されている。仏教にはジェンダー差別が含まれると指摘されているが、日本では仏教の受容当初から女性が活躍しており、女性僧侶の存在が希薄になった時代を経て、現在では女性僧侶の大僧正補任や門主就任への道が開かれるなど、女性の宗団中枢への参画が期待されている。仏教は長い歴史を持ち、また日本仏教は宗派によって制度や教学に違いがあることから、仏典の差別だけを切り取るのではなく、仏教実践の場におけるジェンダー差別を検討していくことに仏教における女性研究の余地が残されていると指摘し結論とした。Buddhism, which has developed in its own unique way since its arrival, is deeply embedded in Japanese culture and daily living. In addition to the teaching and history of Buddhism, a wide range of research exists concerning the social functions of temples and monks. However, research on the study of Buddhism from a gender perspective is new. This paper sheds light on the changes in Buddhism and women since the 1970s second-wave feminism, and examines the history of women in Buddhism, which is not represented in literature reviews, based on existing literature and documents. Prior research on Buddhism and women was active from the 1970s to the 2000s, when the focus shifted from gender discrimination in sutras such as the “Five Obstacles Theory” and the “Eight Respectful Laws” to gender discrimination in practice, such as the role of female monks and monksʼ wives. Qualitative interviews are considered to be an effective way to study gender discrimination in practice. Although others have identified gender discrimination in Buddhism, women have been actively involved since the inception of Buddhism in Japan. Despite the period when the presence of female monks were rare, female monks are now expected to serve at the forefront of their sects such as female monks being appointed as deputy chief priests and chief religious officers. Since Buddhism has a long history and Japanese Buddhism has different systems and doctrine Buddhism has a long history and the systems and teachings of Japanese Buddhism differ from sect to sect. However, there is room for research on women in Buddhism to examine gender discrimination in Buddhist practice, rather than focusing only on discrimination in sutras.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11173/3456
Appears in Collections:第16号(2022-03-15)

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