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第15号(2021-03-15) >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11173/3247

Title: なぜ花嫁は海を渡るのか? : 〈モダニティ〉のスピンオフ
Other Titles: Why Brides Crossed the Sea? : Spinning off from Modernity
Authors: 嘉本, 伊都子
KAMOTO, Itsuko
Keywords: 写真花嫁
picture bride
Geigi and Syougi (geisha girls and prostitutes)
the modern Licensed Prostitution System
Shinto style wedding
Issue Date: 15-Mar-2021
Publisher: 京都女子大学
Abstract: 明治国家は、1872年に壬申戸籍を作成し、結婚や離婚を新たな近代的な制度でコントロールを開始した。同年いわゆる芸娼妓解放令を国際的な対面上出すも、それは新たな近代的公娼制度への布石でもあった。検黴をうけ、登録された娼妓のみが、客と性的な関係を結ぶことができるシステムであった。大日本帝国の植民地拡大は、海外醜業婦と呼ばれる売春婦という国辱的な評価の拡大でもあった。その中には、湾妻、満妻とよばれる妾も含まれた。一方で写真花嫁も近代的な写真を交換して夫となる日本人男性のもとへ海をわたる花嫁たちもいた。花嫁であることを証明するためにハワイやアメリカの移民局では結婚式を挙げさせていた期間もあった。本稿は20世紀初頭、なぜ花嫁は海を渡るのか、当時妻になるとはどのような意味をもったのかを解明する。移民局での挙式のスタイルは、神前結婚という「伝統の発明」に引き継がれ、花嫁の無事到着を知らせる結婚写真は、〈伝統〉と〈モダニティ〉の接合が移民先にスピンオフしたものととらえられるのではないか。写真は更なる憧憬をかきたて、連鎖していった。内地での伝統と近代性の接合と同時に、あるいはそれよりもはやく、海を渡ることで近代性を獲得していた可能性を示す。 The Meiji government controled marriage and divorce through koseki (family registration) since 1872. In the same year the emancipation of Geigi and Syougi (geisha girls and prostitutes) also came into effect; however, this also marked the beginning of the modern Licensed Prostitution System. Only Syougi who had passed an examination for venereal diseases and possessed a license could have intimacy with the customer. As the Empire of Japan had extended its power, Japanese prostitutes had also appeared in many regions and acquired a certain reputation. Some of them became concubines as Wantsuma in Taiwan and Mantsuma in Manchuria; meanwhile, many picture brides crossed the sea after exchanging photographs with their husbands-to-be. It was quite natural for Hawaiian and American authorities to suspect them of being prostitutes. In order to prove they were really wives, the authorities required them to have a wedding ceremony and have their picture taken at the immigration office. This paper will examine why brides crossed the sea. What kind of connotation did becoming a wife have in those days? The wedding ceremony at the immigration office might have affected the ceremony boom of the invention of Shinto style weddings in the early twentieth century. Spinning off from modernity is a key concept of understanding why brides crossed the sea.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11173/3247
Appears in Collections:第15号(2021-03-15)

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